The new interpretation highlighted here seeks to answer some of the many nagging questions about the various water installations and how they related to each other, both in time and function. Before we dig in, be forewarned: Much of what follows will resonate only with hard-core afficionados of Jerusalem antiquities! Note that North is to the right. The Gihon Spring has always been there, of course! This system was still in operation in Iron Age 2, when the tunnel was started. Or have traces of this actually been found? The constructions adjacent to the pool also belong to the MB:
In fact, a large part of the Hebrew and Arabic languages is borrowed from Aramaic, including the Alphabet. Aramaic is quoted in the very first book of the Bible, Berisheth Genesis in Chapter In fact, many portions of the Old Testament are penned originally in Aramaic, including Daniel chapter 2: Tel Dan, Galilee, Israel. Israel Museum, Jerusalem The first known inscriptions of Aramaic date to the late tenth or early ninth century B. For about one thousand years it served as the official and written language of the Near East, officially beginning with the conquests of the Assyrian Empire, which had adopted Aramaic as its official language, replacing Akkadian.
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Recommended Reading Author Anonymous. The story was crafted and reworked by various Mesopotamian and Near Eastern cultures including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hittites and others. The tablet Akkadian version known as the Standard Synthetic Version, dates to around c. The most complete text of the Standard Synthetic Version was recovered from the 25, tablet library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal BC at Niniveh.
As punishment, the gods send him a companion, Enkidu, who is his mirror image and becomes his good friend. Together, Gilgamesh and Enkidu defy the gods by killing the giant Humbaba, cutting down the sacred cedar forest which he guards, and killing the Bull of Heaven. Enkidu has ominous dreams of the destiny of tyrants who become slaves in the House of Death. Enkidu finally dies of an illness sent by the gods. Horrified by Enkidu’s death and the prospect of his own demise, Gilgamesh undertakes a quest for immortality which brings him to the abode of Utnapishtim, a virtuous man who obeys the gods and was saved by them from the Great Flood.
Utnapishtim puts Gilgamesh to various tests, which he fails, and eventually sends him away, assuring him that he cannot escape death. A humbled Gilgamesh returns to Uruk and orders his story to be inscribed in stone. Contexts Mesopotamia “land between rivers” , region between rivers Tigris and Euphrates considered to have been the “cradle of civilization.
Halloran The following lexicon contains 1, Sumerian logogram words and 2, Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around B. Medieval Arabic sources used the name ‘Iraq’ as a geographical term for the area in the south and center of the modern republic. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period B.
Main Issues. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the oldest extant works of written literature. The story of Gilgamesh contains an account of the Great Flood where the hero is a virtuous man, named “Ziusudra” by the Sumerians and “Utnapishtim” by the Akkadian-Babylonians.
Assyrian Agricultural Technology February 15, tags: Siege warfare, cavalry, and the integration and methodical organization of warfare were all advanced considerably by the Assyrian state in its insatiable desire to conquer its neighbors. What Assyria is not well known for are its civil innovations. Yet, Assyrian armies were sacking foreign cities, the Assyrian homeland was being enriched with various things stolen and looted from other countries.
The Assyrians may not have been great innovators, but they were great derivators, taking inventions from various parts of the world and adapting them to their own needs. Assyria was a land power for sure, which means that its power was at its roots based on agricultural production. As both an agrarian society and a highly militarized state, Iron Age Assyria is not the type of society where one would expect to find much independent thought or innovation in the civilian sector.
This is partly true. Few pieces of Assyrian agricultural technology were new.
At the Extreme northern of Mesopotamia settled the Assyrian people who with a long history in the area were subjected to the Kingdoms of most powerful peoples of the South for a while. Of course many elements that contributed to shape the Assyrian Culture were inherited from the Sumerians and that was manifested in their creations; in which techniques and artistic procedures were set over the rich Knowledge inherited.
The first Kings of the nation had his residence in Ashur, until adverse desert climate conditions as well as the attack of the Babylonians neighbors led rulers to the decision to build a second capital at Nineveh.
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When did ancient months start? In the eighth century B. The day calendars had been in use for the greater part of a millennium. In many places, month lengths immediately after that change were not fixed, but were based instead upon observation of the sky. Month length at that time was simply the number of days that passed from one new lunar crescent to the next. During those years in Rome, for example, a Pontifex priest observed the sky and announced a new moon and therefore the new month to the king.
Share An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers ostiarii , later by the mansionarii and the treasurers. The Decretals of Gregory IX lib. Nowadays the sacristan is elected or appointed. The under-sacristan custos is also mentioned in the Decretals lib.
is a growing collection of church membership and religion adherent statistics. Over 44, statistics for over 4, faith groups from all world religions, major religions and most minor religions, listing number of adherents, number of congregations, and number of countries. Includes both world totals and regional/country breakdowns.
What Is the Didache? In the recent exchange that I posted on the blog dealing with the existence of Q the document known as the Didache was mentioned — especially by guest contributor Alan Garrow, who thinks that the Didache was a source used by the authors of Matthew and Luke. The Didache is almost always assumed to have quoted the Gospels — or at least the traditions found in the Gospels — not vice versa. But what is the Didache pronounced DID-ah-kay? I better do so! In that edition I talk about what the book is, whether it is one book or several documents that have been cut and pasted together, when it was written, and so on.
That may be useful information for the blog, and so I will give it over the course of two or three posts. I have edited my Introduction slightly to make it a bit more user friendly it was written for scholars and advanced students. Here is the opening of the Introduction, where I explain briefly something about its discovery and contents. Found by Philotheos Bryennios in in the Library of the Holy Sepulchre in Constantinople and published by him ten years later, the Didache was immediately seen to be one of most important literary remains of early Christianity outside of the New Testament.
Do so — for the end is near!!
History Crash Course Assyrian Conquest The Assyrians conquer northern Israel and vanquish the nation with exile. The Assyrians at this time occupy the territory immediately north — what is today’s Syria, Iraq, and Turkey — and they are continuing to build their empire. If you go the British Museum in London, you can see some fascinating Assyrian artifacts from this period. You can also see a relief from the walls of the magnificent palace at Nineveh, Assyria’s capital city.
That palace belonged to King Sennacherib, and the relief shows the siege of the Israelite city of Lachish; it was conquered by Sennacherib, who then boasted about it on his palace walls.
Ancient Assyrian Art. At the Extreme northern of Mesopotamia settled the Assyrian people who with a long history in the area were subjected to the Kingdoms .
This may have simply intended “Place of Fish” or may have indicated a goddess associated with fish or the Tigris, possibly originally of Hurrian origin. Kouyunjik was, according to Layard , a Turkish name, and it was known as Armousheeah by the Arabs,  and is thought to have some connection with the Kara Koyunlu dynasty. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid in parts by new suburbs of the city of Mosul.
Early history[ edit ] Nineveh was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. The deep sounding at Nineveh uncovered layers now dated to early Hassuna culture period. The early city and subsequent buildings was constructed on a fault line and, consequently, suffered damage from a number of earthquakes. Texts from the Hellenistic period later offered an eponymous Ninus as the founder of Nineveh, although there is no historical basis for this.
Ninevite 5 period[ edit ] The regional influence of Nineveh became particularly pronounced during the archaeological period known as Ninevite 5, or Ninevite V — BC. This period is defined primarily by the characteristic pottery that is found widely throughout northern Mesopotamia. Ninevite 5 pottery is roughly contemporary to the Early Transcaucasian culture ware, and the Jemdet Nasr ware. Scarlet Ware was first documented in the Diyala River basin in Iraq.
Later, it was also found in the nearby Hamrin Basin , and in Luristan. Refined low-relief section of a bull-hunt frieze from Nineveh, alabaster , c.